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Medicine Based on CBD Can Reduce the Effect of Lennox-Gastaut Epilepsy

Jul 13th, 2018

Lennox-Gastaut Epilepsy (LGE), also known as (LGS) Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, is a rare type of epilepsy that onsets in childhood and represents not even 2% of new epilepsy cases. However, because of its refractory nature, LGS is extremely difficult to control and represents almost 15% of all epilepsy cases.

Institutions and physicians are yet to agree on the precise definition of this disease; however; virtually all characterizations of LGS consists of three parts; various types of seizure, (a little less than 2.5 Hertz) slow-wave EEG (electroencephalogram) pattern, and developmental/mental delay. Approximately three in every four instances of this type of epilepsy are found to be symptomatic of a number of other conditions, from prenatal brain injury to autism and many others, while the remaining are idiopathic and their causes cannot be diagnosed.


Causes of LGS


LGS occurs in a range of different ways when a child is two to six years old; depending on other factors and the overall health of the kid after, during, or before birth.

  • Three out of every four instances of LGS stem from another condition
  • Autism, meningitis, encephalitis, perinatal asphyxiation, metabolic deficiencies, and traumatic brain injuries can all result in the manifestation of this disorder
  • One in every four cases of LGS are idiopathic, and their causes cannot be diagnosed
  • Many scientists posit, a deficiency in the ECS (endocannabinoid system) results in dysfunctional conditions, which in turn triggers the LGS; and this may satisfactorily answer the question, why cannabinoid (CBD) is way more potent when practically all other (anti-epilepsy drugs) AEDs among the lot, do not succeed to mitigate the sufferings significantly


Diagnosis and nature of LGS


Though different resources and institutions define the LGS by minutely different metrics, there are a number of differentiable properties that coincide and define the unanimity on this rare illness.

  • LGS causes many different kinds of seizure in the kids
  • Myoclonic, Tonic, Tonic-Clonic, and many other more severe kinds of seizures are common with LGS
  • LGS seizures exhibit a particular slow spike-wave pattern in the EEG
  • Slow spike-wave EEG patterns nearly at 2.5 Hertz are a distinct characteristic of this syndrome, interspersed with
  • LGS leads to intellectual/developmental disability
  • Children suffering from LGS face difficulty developing neurotypically as a result of a constant salvo of ictal assault


Present treatment pathways and most recommended practices for LGS


Present AEDs function by modulating ratio and overall expression of excitatory neurotransmitters. Nonetheless, the brain is way more complicated than just an array of chemical switches that can be activated and deactivated. The ECS is present in almost everywhere in the brain, and it regulates the sensitivity of neurons to impulses transmitted by proximate neurons. It also decides how strong the signals are going to be, which a neuron is planning to send.


When this delicate balance breaks down, a range of neuropsychological symptoms may appear. LGS seems to happen when the expression of ECS, i.e., an intricate system in humans that manages the responsiveness of neurons to signals; ceases to maintain its required balance. It results in a host of various types of seizures found in the cases of LGS. As comparatively less serious cases of LGS are also happen to be of great severity, children usually should wear appropriate headgears to protect their skulls from any sudden drop seizures or any other unpredictable motor activity.


Cannabis for Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome


As stated before, (CBD) cannabidiol and other phytocannabinoids work on the ECS to alleviate the complications of LGS. CBD takes charge of the situation by impacting the (cannabinoid type one) CB1 receptors, whose number exceeds that of all the other receptors taken into account. Cannabinoid receptors are characteristically inhibitory, and hence when the CB1 receptors are in an active state; the functions of the cell that accommodates them is reduced. THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) directly switches these receptors on, thus, reduces the likelihood of a neural firing by inhibiting the cellular activity of that neuron; and it also reasonably explains how this chemical compound produces the high.


CBD functions by negatively modulating cannabinoid receptors. Apparently, this may appear paradoxical, is not that going to increase a cell’s activity instead of decreasing it?!

Well, yes, kind of.

CBD blocks the inhibitory receptor first, which is biologically analogous to a double negative, 1dis-2inhibiting the functions of the cell that has got the CB1 receptor. However, the human body spontaneously responds to any negative activity by reimbursing with positive feedback, and the mere presence of cannabidiol causes the brain to create more inhibitory CB1 receptors. As a result, the resting state of inhibition of neurons increases, which in turn raises their excitatory threshold. Note that resting inhibition depends upon the number of cannabinoid receptors.


In practice; CBD indirectly amplifies the natural process of the human brain; by which it inhibits any unwanted activity, such as, seizures. By positively influencing the ECS, or more specifically, its inhibitory presence; CBD elevates the threshold level of excitation needed to evoke a neuronal response. Similarly, a combination of CBD and THC is found to be an even more powerful anti-epileptic remedy, and the mechanism is scientifically known as the entourage effect.


Legality of cannabis


Many US states allow prescribing and dispensing of weed on medical ground. However, it does conflict with the federal regulations, and there are many more complications to take up research studies on CBD treatment and related things because of the federal restrictions. It can mean registered medical practitioners who adhere to state laws regarding medical marijuana could very well be violating federal law.


Some states have responded by including protections for doctors, but they should be aware of the state as well as the federal laws and also their potential implications. It is also not legal for parents possessing medical cannabis across the state lines or receiving such consignments shipped to them. It is pretty standard for the companies to label CBD products as hemp extracts to escape the law. However, if the item contains CBD, then it will be considered as Schedule I substance and will not be legally permissible for shipping across the state lines.

Author Name: Michell

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